Diet, Microbiota and Regulation of Inflammation. 1st Part

Diseases such as obesity , type 2 diabetes , cardiovascular pathologies , neurodegenerative diseases or cancer are and Regulation of the main conditions of Western society in the 21st century. All of them have a common denominator: chronic inflammation (1-5). This demonstrates an impact of the microbiota on health. This inflammation uses the immune system ‘s own messengers to communicate to the different cells of the body the presence of tissue damage or a focus of infection (5-8). It generates an intercellular protein scenario that not only modifies the behavior of immune cells , but also somatic stem cells (9), endocrine cells (5,10) and even cells of the nervous system (11). Inflammation, as a physiological resolution process, is by being of short duration and with optimal intensity. Both excess duration and intensity can lead to chronic systemic alterations (12). In genetically susceptible people, this dysfunctional inflammation can be the trigger for developing any of the pathologies above.

Intestinal microbiota and the immune system

The studies published in recent years on the role of symbiotic bacteria and fungi , some viruses or even the parasites with which our digestive tract coexists, are changing the classic Pasteurian paradigm . The idea that microbes and France WhatsApp Number Data parasites have exclusively pathological potential is evolving towards a view of health in which ecological balance plays a key role, both in the maintenance of health and in the loss of health (19,20). ). In the microbiota of mammals there are four dominant sections at taxonomic levels: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. In the gastrointestinal tract, specifically, we find the most important population of microbes (microbiota) and parasites . The gut microbiota is the collection of microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. It is of more than 1,000 different species that contribute 3.3 million unique microbial genes to the gastrointestinal tract of humans.

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Different mechanisms involved in the maintenance

From genetics (24), through inheritance through direct contact with the mother’s vaginal flora during childbirth. Breastfeeding (26), excessive use of antibiotics (27) and ending with diet. For example, babies born vaginally acquire the Guatemala WhatsApp Number List mother’s vaginal flora. Which includes Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli. While those born by cesarean section have levels of skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus spp. (25). Beyond the postnatal period, the microbiota is necessary to induce regulatory mechanisms at maintaining. The mucosa and systemic immunity in balance, so that an adequate ecosystem will allow the generation of optimal responses against pathogenic agents . On the contrary, an alteration of the ecological balance will increase susceptibility to infections (29). The microbiota has been shown to participate in the expansion of B and T cells in Peyer’s patches and mesenteric lymph nodes , especially CD4+ T cells and also regulatory T cells (30). A healthy intestinal microbiota generates conditions of resistance to colonization by pathogens that allow effective control of infections.

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